5M: are five categories or groups of activity used to locate the causes of a problem. The 5M’s are Machine, Methods, Manpower, Materials or Measurement. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
5S: is a system that includes five activities for identifying and eliminating waste and necessary for implementing workplace organization. 1) Sort – Separate necessary items from unnecessary items. 2) Set in Order – Define a specific location for each necessary item. 3) Shine – Use cleaning to inspect work areas, equipment, etc. 4) Standardize – Make Sort, Set in Order and Shine a daily practice in the workplace. 5) Sustain – Develop and implement systems to support the 5S process as a standard practice. See Step 3 – Workplace Organization. Also see 6S.
5 Whys: is a problem solving technique which involves asking “Why” in response to a problem statement. It usually requires five Why’s to identify the root cause of the problem. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
6S: is sometimes called “5S + 1” with “Safety” as an additional focus point. Many lean practitioners believe this is unnecessary because safety is already inherent within the 5S process.
7 Quality Tools: defined by Professor Kaoru Ishikawa to solve 95% of problems are: Stratification (alternately Flow Chart or Run Chart), Histogram, Pareto Chart, Scatter Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram (Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagrams), Control Chart, and Check Sheet. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
7 Types of Waste: are the original 7 wastes recognized by Taiichi Ohno. The 7 wastes are: Overproduction, Excessive Inventory, Transportation, Unnecessary Motion, Waiting, Over Processing and Defects.
8 Types of Waste: includes the original 7 original wastes plus an additional one. Overproduction, Excessive Inventory, Transportation, Unnecessary Motion, Waiting, Over Processing, Defects and Underutilized People. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Affinity Diagram: is also known as the “KJ” method after its developer Kawakita Jiro. It is a technique that helps to synthesize large amounts of data by finding relationships between ideas and grouping them. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Andon: is a Japanese term for “lantern”. In industry it means a signal light. It is designed as a visual aid to bring attention and action in response to the status of a process. Color coding will determine if a process is performing in normal or abnormal condition. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
Autonomation (Jidoka): is providing machines and operators with the ability to detect when an abnormal condition has occurred and immediately stop work. This enables operations to build in quality at each process and to separate men and machines for more efficient work.
Auto Time: is the time when a machine is running on auto cycle and a person is not needed to operate the machine. Commonly used for CNC/NC machine cycles, oven cycles, wash cycles, etc.
Available Time: is the total shift time (in hours) less any breaks, which equals the actual available production time. If a company works an 8 hour shift with two 15 minute breaks, the calculation for available time would be (8 x 60) – (2 x 15) = 480 – 30 = 450 minutes. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Balanced Line: is a production line where all the processing activities have been distributed equally. Each activity takes the same amount of time and produces the same number of products. See Step 7 – Balanced Workload.
Batch and Queue Processing: is the traditional approach to manufacturing. The number of parts produced was calculated using economical order quantity (EOQ) formula and/or machine efficiency. The theory is that idle machines do not make money, therefore, the longer the machine runs, the lower the cost of each part. This creates waste of overproduction and excessive inventory. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
Brainstorming: is a group activity in which all team members try to generate ideas on a specific issue. Next, they will determine which idea or ideas will provide the best solution to a problem. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Bottleneck: is any activity or process that restricts flow or limits capacity. Also see Constraint.
Cause and Effect Diagram: is also known as a Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram. The purpose of a CE Diagram is to systematically identify and organize possible causes of problems, not symptoms. It visually displays problem analysis. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Cell: is an optimal layout of machines and people for a dedicated product or family of products.
Cellular Manufacturing: is a process of manufacturing where the work area layout is in a process sequence. Workers continue to follow the work sequence and a water spider presents the materials to them from outside of the cell. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
Chaku-chaku: is a Japanese term meaning “one worker, several tasks”. It identifies the sequence of activities of a worker inside a cell. The worker is using single piece flow and performing their tasks in a counter-clockwise direction. The process is designed to allow the worker to create a smooth flow as they load and unload each workstation without the waste of unnecessary motion. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow
Check Sheet: is a form used to collect data. There are five basic types of check sheets which are Classification, Location, Frequency, Measurement Scale and Check List. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Constraint: is a workstation or a process that limits the output of the entire system.
Continuous Improvement (Kaizen): is a philosophy of implementing small improvements every day. Small improvements over time will eventually have a large impact on a business. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Continuous Flow: is the concept of producing a single piece in a continuous process to eliminate waste, improve quality and reduce lead-time. See Step 6 – Implement a Pull System.
Cycle Time: is the fixed time it takes to do one repetition of any particular task. Cycle time can separated into three categories, manual cycle time, machine cycle time and auto cycle time. See Step 7 – Balanced Workload
Elements of Work: are 1) value-added work, 2) auxiliary work 3) waste (muda). A thorough understanding of these three elements of work is a first step in the journey to becoming a Lean Enterprise.
Ergonomics: is the study of the body motions when performing a task. Ergonomics have a direct impact of the effectiveness of the workers. It includes their health and safety in the workplace.
External Activity: is an element of machine changeover that can be performed while the machine is working or not working. The preference is to perform it when the machine is working. See Step 5 – Reduce Changeover Times.
First-in, First Out (FIFO): is a system to control the flow of production. It prevents orders from being processed out of sequence delayed unfairly in favour of newer orders. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Fishbone Diagram: are used to identify the causes of a problem from one of the 5M’s – Machine, Methods, Manpower, Materials or Measurement. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement. Also see Ishikawa or Cause and Effect Diagrams.
Five Whys: The Five “Whys” is a problem solving process, which involves asking “Why”. It usually requires five Why’s to identify the root cause of the problem. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Flow: is continuously moving the product or information from one operation to the next. Also, see One-Piece Flow, Single Piece Flow or Continuous Flow. See Step 4 – improve Process Flow.
Flow Chart: is a graphical or schematic representation of a process that identifies the flow or activity. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Gemba: is a Japanese term for ‘actual place’ or ‘the place where it happens’. In manufacturing, the Gemba is the shop floor, where all value is created.
Gembutsu: is a Japanese term for ‘actual thing’ or ‘actual product’. The tools, materials, machines, parts, and fixtures that both add value and cause problems are your Gembutsu.
Genjitsu: is a Japanese term for ‘the facts’ or ‘the truth’. It is referencing the actual facts or the reality of what is happening on the shop floor and in the business.
Hansei: is a Japanese term for “reflection, look back or review”. It is a process used after a rapid improvement event to understand and confront the brutal facts about what happened during the event. What worked and did not work? See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Heijunka: is a Japanese term for the levelling or smoothing the production schedule by averaging out the volume and model mix of products. See Step 7 – Balanced Workload.
Histogram: is a specialized type of bar chart. Data points are grouped together in classes or bins to determine how frequently data occurs in the data set. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Information Flow: is the analysis of the information and communication methods required to take a specific product or service from order entry through detailed scheduling to actual delivery of the product to the customer. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Impact/Effort Matrix: is the tool used to prioritize ideas, actions or activities. The impact and effort for implementing an idea or activity are rated between High or Low and Easy or Difficult respectively to determine the level of improvement. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Inspection: is comparing a product / component or service against an acceptable specification to determine if such product or service meets those requirements.
Internal Activity: is a machine changeover step that can only be performed while the machine is stopped. An example of internal set-up time would be the time it takes to replace the drill on a spindle. See Step 5 – Reduce Changeover Time.
Inventory: is raw materials, parts, subassemblies and finished goods that a business holds to support its operation. These items represent the total amount of capital investment tied up and available to be converted into finished products and sold to customers.
Inventory Turns: are the frequency at which inventory investment is converted into finished goods that are delivered to and paid for by the customer. Increasing the number of inventory turns, is an indication of good inventory management.
Jidoka: is a Japanese term for a system that provides machines and operators with the ability to detect when an abnormal condition has occurred and immediately stops the process.
JIT (Just in Time): Production methodology characterized by continuous one-piece-at-a-time flow production accomplished according to takt time, the pulling forward of inventory through signals generated by customer demand, and using the absolute minimum resources of man, material, and machines to make only what is needed – when it is needed.
Kaiaku: is a Japanese term for Radical improvement, usually in a business process, that affects the future value stream.
Kaizen: is a Japanese term meaning ‘change for the better’ or ‘incremental improvement’. In Lean Manufacturing it is defined as a team event to identify the root causes of waste and find solutions to eliminate them. See Rapid Improvement Event (RIE)
Kanban: is a Japanese term for ‘sign’. It is a technique used as part of a Pull System that signals to the production floor that the customer has ‘pulled’ or bought the product from the producer. Cards, carts, boxes, and electronic signals are examples of types of kanban in common usage. In process kanbans are sometimes used as a method to balance material flow between otherwise unbalanced operation times. See Step 6 – Implement a Pull System.
Kitting: is a presentation method that groups parts and/or materials. It is a visual management technique used to prevent a worker from starting to build an assembly only to find that parts are missing or not available. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
Lead Time: is the time between the receipt of an order to the shipment of the finished product regardless of actual production time.
Lean Event: is a rapid Improvement or Kaizen event.
Lean Manufacturing: is a Just in Time (JIT) manufacturing system.
Level Production: is the leveling of a production schedule for a mix and volume of items produced during a given time period to meet customer demand. See Step 7 – Balanced Workload. Also see Heijunka.
Line Side Market: is a small supermarket located at a point of use that is situated near or inside a cell. It contains an inventory of parts and/or materials to keep a cell working to meet takt time. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
Machine Capacity: is a calculation to determine the number of pieces that can be produced through one machine for a given time period.
Machine time: is the time from the start of a machine cycle, through processing, to when the machine returns to its original starting position. During which the worker is not required to do any hands-on work.
Manual time: is the hands-on time it takes for a worker to complete a specific task.
Manufacturing Losses: are lost production because of scrap or rework. These losses are waste because they absorb resources, is non-value adding and the customer is not willing to pay for them.
Material Presentation: is a method of introducing material to the line or cell that is oriented in a way to make it easy and effective for the worker. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
Muda: is a Japanese term for waste. Any activity that absorbs resources and adds no value is considered muda.
Mura: is a Japanese term for unevenness, inconsistency or variation in a process.
Muri: is Japanese term for overburden of a worker or process.
Multi-Machine Handling: is when a shop worker is operating two or more machines grouped together in a cell.
Multi-Process Handling: is when a shop worker is performing more than one processing task.
Multi-Skill Development: is when a worker can operate multiple types of equipment and processes in order to facilitate cellular production in a one-piece flow.
Multi-Skilled Worker: is an employee who shows the proficiency to operate multiple processes and machines, has the ability to troubleshoot the operations and to train other operators. Flexibility in any production environment is dependent upon the capabilities of this type of worker.
Non-value Added: is any activity that does not add value to the product or service but absorbs resources and increases cost. See Step 2 Value Stream Mapping. Also see Muda.
One Piece Flow: is a manufacturing method where parts are made one at a time and passed on to the next process with no waiting time in between each processing step.
One Touch Exchange of Die (OTED): is one of the techniques of SMED that reduces the tooling exchange and machine set-up to a single step. OTED is an advanced method that can only occur after the basic SMED techniques have been implemented and sustained.
Pareto Chart: is a bar graph. The lengths of the bars represent frequency, and are arranged with the longest bars on the left and the shortest on the right. The longest bars represent the “vital few issues” that are the main causes of the problem. See Step – 9 Continuous Process Improvement.
PDCA: is an acronym for PLAN, DO, CHECK and ACT. It is known as the Deming Cycle. The procedure is to develop a plan with defined and focused activities, do the activities defined in the plan, check the output from the planned activities, and determine if the outputs meet the planned expectations, if “NO” take action to correct the problem. See Step – 9 Continuous Process Improvement. Also see PDSA.
PDSA: is an acronym for PLAN, DO, STUDY and ACT. The procedure is to develop a plan with defined and focused activities, do the activities defined in the plan, study the outcome from the planned activities, and determine if they meet the planned expectations, if “NO” take action to correct the problem. See Step – 9 Continuous Process Improvement. Also see PDCA.
Poka Yoke: is a Japanese term for a mistake-proof device that is designed to stop parts, processes, or procedures being assembled or used incorrectly.
Point of Use (POUS) : is a location that is within easy reach of a worker and their workstation. It eliminates the waste of searching for items.
Problem: is an activity that has deviated from a known standard or expectation.
Problem Statement: is a concise description of an issue or problem. It is used to focus a team that is going through a problem solving exercise. See Step – 9 Continuous Process Improvement.
Process Capacity: is the maximum amount of items that can be produced through a process over specific periods e.g. shift, week, month, quarter, etc.
Process Mapping: is a technique of documenting the detailed flow of a part or delivery of a service throughout the required cycle of steps to completion. It is different from Value Stream Mapping.
Product Quantity Analysis (PQ): is the study of the quantities of product demand in a work area. The data is used to create a graph of the volume and mix of products. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
PQ/PR: is a combination of a Product Quantity and a Process Route Analysis. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Process Route Analysis (PR): is helpful in identifying common operations used to produce specific types of products or part families. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Production Smoothing: is a method of production scheduling that produces every part every day to reduce the fluctuation of customer demand out of manufacturing. See Step 7 – Balanced Workload.
Pull System: is a method of triggering production by product consumption. A customer purchases a product, therefore the upstream operations are activated to replenish the item. See Step 6 – Implement a Pull System.
Push System: is the opposite of a Pull System. A supply process is triggered by a sales forecast, which is an assumption of customer demand based on historical data. This methodology creates waste in the form of overproduction and excessive inventory. See Step 6 – Implement a Pull System.
QCD: is an acronym for three key performance indicators (KPI’s) Quality, Cost, and Delivery. Improvement activities should focus on improving QCD metrics. See Step 1 – Strategy Deployment Part 4.
Quality: is meeting all expectations and requirements, stated and unstated by the customer.
Queue Time: is the accumulated time a part sits and waits to be processed. Queue time is waiting and this is waste.
Quick Changeover: is the ability to rapidly change machine tooling, fixtures and parts. Quick changeover is a key ingredient for achieving manufacturing flexibility. See Step 5 – Reduce Changeover Times.
Run Chart: is a basic line graph of data points that are plotted in the sequence that any process events occurred. Run Charts are used to assess and recognize patterns formed by the data points. See Step – 9 Continuous Process Improvement.
RIE: is an acronym for a Rapid Improvement Event (kaizen). See Step – 9 Continuous Process Improvement.
Scatter Diagram: is used to measure the strength of the relationship between two variables. It can be used as a follow up process to a Cause and Effect Diagram to determine the relationship between cause and effect data points. See Step 9 – Continuous Improvement.
Scrap: is a defective part, which cannot be reworked or repaired. Scrap uses resources but is non-value added or waste.
Sequence of Work: is the order in which an operator performs a series of repetitive manual tasks. It may or may not be in the same sequence as the material is flowing. See Step 4 – Process Flow Part 2. Also see Work Sequence.
Sequential Changeover: is when the equipment changeover times are completed within takt time. Changeovers can be performed one after another in a flow line. See Step 5 – Reduce Changeover Times.
Set-up Time: is the manual time associated with changing the tooling, fixtures, programs, or operators that are needed to produce a different product. The definition of a changeover is: “From the time when the machine stops making the last good part until the time the machine stops making the next good part of a different type.” See Step 5 – Reduce Changeover Times.
strong>Single Piece Flow: is also known as Continuous or One Piece Flow. It is when a system can process one item at a time. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
Six Sigma: is a quality and management system using the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) model to achieve a measure of 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
SMED: is an acronym for Single Minute Exchange of Die. It is a system for reducing set-up times to below 10 minutes. Dr. Shigeo Shingo developed it. See Step 5 – Reduce Changeover Times.
Standard WIP (SWIP): is a standardized quantity of work in process required to perform to takt time or customer demand. See Step 8 – Standard Work.
Standard Work: is a method for identifying the best practices and documenting them. See Step 8 – Standard Work.
Standard Work Combination Sheet: is a standardized form that clarifies how much time is spent to complete manual, machine, and travel activities at each production process. See Step 8 – Standard Work.
Strategy Deployment (Hoshin Kanri): The selection of goals, projects to achieve the goals, designation of people and resources for project completion, and the establishment of project metrics. The key benefit to strategy deployment is the enhanced communication, input and participation between all affected parties and stakeholders. Expectations and requirements are known and understood by everyone. See Step 1 – Strategy Deployment.
Supermarket: is a staging device that is typically located near or inside f a production line or cell. A supermarket holds a fixed amount of raw material, work in process, or finished goods. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Takt Time: is the pace that a production process must work at to meet customer demand. Takt time is calculated using the available time divided by the customer demand. Takt is a German word for ‘beat’ or ‘pulse’. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping
Toyota Production System (TPS): is considered by many to be the benchmark for World Class.
Travel Diagram: is a drawing of work area layout. It illustrates the movement of people, parts and equipment to and/or from a workstation or staging location. Travel distances are captured to determine how far they actually travel during a typical workday.
Travel Time: is the time for a worker, equipment or parts to move towards and/or away from a workstation or staging location.
Value Added Work: is work activity that changes the fit, form and function of a product. It is something the customer is willing to pay for. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Value Stream: is all the value and non-value activities required to design, order, produce and deliver finished goods into the hands of the customer. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Value Stream Mapping: is a method to draw a diagram that is a graphical representation of every step involved in the information and material flows of a process. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Visual Controls: are the tools of visual management such as colour coding, charts, andons, schedule boards, labels, and visual flow production lines or cells. The purpose of these tools is to identify any normal vs. abnormal situations. See Step 3 – Workplace Organization.
Visual Management: is a system of recognition to tell at a glance if a production process is working in a normal or abnormal state. See Step 3 – Workplace Organization.
Waiting Time: is the time that a worker, product or machine is idle.
Waste (Muda): is any activity that absorbs resources and does not add value for the customer. The eight types of waste are 1) Over production, 2) Excessive inventory, 3) Transportation, 4) Defects, 5) Waiting, 6) Excessive motion, 7) Over processing and 8) Underutilized people. See Step 2 – Value Stream Mapping.
Water Spider (Mizusumashi): is a multi-skilled, well-trained person who has a routine to replenish the materials and/or parts of a cell. They know all the processes of the production operations thoroughly enough to step into any work position if needed. See Step 4 – Improve Process Flow.
WIP: is Work in Process, which is inventory that is being processed through an operation.
Work Sequence: is the order in which an operator performs a series of repetitive manual tasks. It may or may not be in the same sequence as the material is flowing. See Step 4 – Process Flow Part 2. Also see Sequence of work.
Zero Defects: is a quality improvement procedure for eliminating scrap and rework.